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Burn All GIFs
PNG: Portable Network Graphics

PNG Now!  (Portable Network Graphics)

MNG Now!  (Multiple-image network graphics)

Burn All GIFs Software Patents, Copyrights and "Intellectual Property"

Do you know "gif"? GIF is the abbreviation for Graphics Interchange Format. It is a graphic format commonly used on websites.

It turns out that because of the peculiarities of U. S. patent law, it is possible to obtain patents on computational techniques and patterns of communication.

And it also turns out that Unisys holds a patent on an integral part of GIF technology. And Unisys may want $5,000 from you because you use GIFs.

How Did We Get Here?

In 1983 Sperry (which later became Unisys) filed for a patent on a data compression technique called LZW. Then in the June 1984 issue of Ieee Computer Magazine, Terry A. Welch described the LZW algorithm. Unfortunately, Terry neglected to mention that a patent was pending on the technique. That patent was eventually granted in 1985.

Inspired by Terry Welch's article, LZW became a popular technique for compressing data. When CompuServe was developing GIF files, it used the algorithm. And then in 1987, when CompuServe released GIF as a free and open specification the popularity grew. More and more developers began to use the algorithm, all oblivious to the now existing patent. For example, both Tiff files and Adobe postscript use the patented algorithm.

What Is the Licensing Problem?

In 1989 Unisys (the successor to Sperry) discovered this patent and began "licensing" (read, "charging money"). It's been a slow downhill since. That slow downhill has been exacerbated in recent months by Unisys's seemingly unclear and seemingly changing stances on its license. And also because Unisys has made it virtually impossible for the freeware, shareware and open source markets to obtain legal access to their patented techniques. I mean, how much would you pay to include technology in a software product you intend to give away for free?

What is Burn All GIFs?

Burn All GIFs is a loose "organization" around a website advocating the elimination of GIFs and their replacement by PNG format graphics. The first Burn All GIFs day was 05.Nov.1999. The idea was to protest at Unisys offices by showing up and either really burning or (if flame presented a legal, permitting or safety issue) figuratively burning GIF files.

What Did Unisys Do to Trigger This?

Unisys began offering licenses for $5,000 per server to permit you to put GIFs onto your website. Now Unisys notes that you may not need a license. If your GIF was created with properly licensed software, you don't need a license to host it on your site.

But, just to be sure . . . or to quote from their 02.Sep.1999 clarification:

Why should you get an LZW Web site license?
You'll be able to deal with any vendors, developers, services or Webmasters whether they have an LZW license agreement from Unisys or not. You won't have to go to the trouble of verifying that each vendor is licensed by Unisys.

Patents? I Didn't Know You Could Patent Software

You couldn't. But now you can. And that change has introduced some significant complications into the arena of intellectual property. There are now several groups in the U. S. dedicated to reversing this trend. And, there are organizations in Europe attempting to stop the spread of software patents to Europe.

Who Supports Software Patents?

Lots of big companies do. Some are the ones you would expect: IBM, Microsoft, Intel. But perhaps surprising are the companies that do not: Borland International, Oracle, Adobe, and others. (See the links to statements on software patents at the bottom of this page.)

What Is UCITA?

UCITA stand for "Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act". UCITA is a draft state law for contracts relating to software and other forms of computer information. The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL) drafted this model law. NCCUSL and certain software companies are now urging state legislatures to enact UCITA.

The idea behind uniform state laws is a good one: it permits uniformity among the states and improves the ability for business to act across multiple state jurisdictions. However, in this case, there is broad opposition to this particular model law.

Interestingly enough, many of the same companies that support Software Patents, also support the UCITA.

Because UCITA is important, but different to these issues, I discuss it further on my UCITA page.

What Are All These Links?

The links on this page are those I collected in my personal search through the issues of GIFs, Software Patents, Copyrights, Intellectual Property and the UCITA. Although they encompass more than just the Unisys GIF controversy, they all relate in some way to the central questions that controversy raises.


Across the Net

4CITE: For a Competitive Information and Technology Economy4CITe: For a Competitive Information and Technology economy: A broad based coalition of end-users and developers of computer and information technology dedicated to ensuring that UCITA does not become law in any state.  (www.4cite.org)

UCITA 101UCITA 101: The 4CITe education page. Excellent overview of UCITA and the problems with this law.  (www.4cite.org/ucta101.html)

Alfie Kohn SiteAlfie Kohn Site: Author of No Contest: The Case Against Competition, and Punished by Rewards. Writes on the effect of "rewards" and "competition" on performance, in management, families and schools. See also his article "Studies Find Reward Often No Motivator" on the Free Software Foundation site.  (www.AlfieKohn.org)

Bad SoftwareBad Software: A website with substantial information opposing the UCITA.  (www.badsoftware.com)

ArticlesArticles: An extensive link list of articles opposing UCITA.  (www.badsoftware.com/oppose.htm)

Organizations That Have Opposed or Criticized UCITAOrganizations That Have Opposed or Criticized UCITA: A huge list of organizations, including links to published criticisms and opposition statements.  (www.badsoftware.com/oppose.htm)

The History of Software Patents (BitLaw)BitLaw: The History of Software Patents: Why the reluctance to issue software patents and how that changed.  (www.bitlaw.com/software-patent/history.html)

BitLaw: Why Protect Software Through PatentsBitLaw: Why Protect Software Through Patents: What are the benefits to the patent holder?  (www.bitlaw.com/software-patent/why-patent.html)

BitLaw: Software is Now PatentableBitLaw: Software is Now Patentable: Discusses and explains how software is now patentable under the 1996 Patent and Trademark Office guidelines.  (www.bitlaw.com/software-patent/patentable.html)

BitLaw: Bad Software PatentsBitLaw: Bad Software Patents: How some software patents are "bad".  (www.bitlaw.com/software-patent/bad-patents.html)

Bob Niland: This is an LZW-Free SiteBob Niland: This is an LZW-Free Site: Bob explains why he has removed GIFs, and draws a comparison to the now-defunct Hayes Microcomputer Products company.  (www.frii.com/~rjn/unisys.htm)

Boston Globe  (29.Aug.1999), "Copyright Crusader"Boston Globe  (29.Aug.1999) , " Copyright Crusader": This article discusses eric eldred, then man behind eldred v. Reno. (See other info on this page re eldred v. Reno.)  (www.boston.com/globe/magazine/8-29/featurestory1.shtml)

Burn All GIFsBurn All GIFs: The official website of the Burn All GIFs organization.  (burnallgifs.org/ This site links back to my Burn All GIFs page from this page on their site.

BustPatents.comBustPatents.com: This website by Source Translation & Optimization provides "legal resources and tools for surviving the patenting frenzy of the internet, bioinformatics and electronic commerce". It has included articles on the Unisys/LZW issue. It also includes a free newsletter, The Internet Patent News Service.  (www.bustpatents.com)

Internet Patent News ServiceInternet Patent News Service: This page provides instructions on how to subscribe to the free email service.  (www.bustpatents.com/ipns.htm)

Patents Declared Invalid by the PTO or the CourtsPatents Declared Invalid by the PTO or the Courts: This page on the BustPatents.com site is an incredibly interesting list of patents that once were and are no more.  (www.bustpatents.com/invalid.htm)

Cooley Godward LLPCooley Godward LLP (www.cooley.com)

A Bill of Rights for Software is IssuedA Bill of Rights for Software is Issued (20.May.1996): An article by a law firm on the 1996 PTO guidelines for patenting software. Generally supportive of software patents.  (www.cooley.com/publications_content.ixe?section=Article+Reprints&id=9)

The Intellectual Property Renaissance In Cyberspace: Why Copyright Law Could Be Unimportant On The Internet (14.Aug.1997): An interesting article on the changes the internet might bring to copyright.  (www.cooley.com/publications_content.ixe?section=Article+Reprints&id=52)

Copyright's CommonsCopyright's Commons: This organization promotes the concept of public domain and widespread access to creative works. It promotes the counter-copyright, similar to copyleft and open source, in the non-software copyright community.  (cyber.law.harvard.edu/cc/index.html)

Counter-CopyrightsCounter-Copyrights: As an alternative to the exclusivity of copyright, the counter-copyright invites others to use and build upon a creative work. The counter-copyright initiative is analogous to the idea of copyleft and open source in the software context.  (cyber.law.harvard.edu/cc/cc.html)

Eldred v. Renoeldred v. Reno: This page discusses the case opposing the Copyright Term extension Act (commonly known as the "Sonny Bono Act"). (See also the Boston Globe.)  (cyber.law.harvard.edu/eldredvreno/index.html)

Corel Sued by Unisys Over LZW Patent InfringementCorel Sued by Unisys Over LZW Patent Infringement: This is a copy of the Unisys press release announcing settlement.  (www.itweb.co.za/office/unisys/9809071211.htm)

Debunking the Software Patent Myths (Jun.1992)Debunking the Software Patent Myths (Jun.1992): This article by Paul Heckel, was originally published in Communications of the ACM. It strongly advocates software patents in response to an article by the League for Programming Freedom entitled "Against Software Patents" in the Jan.1992 issue.  (www.heckel.org/Heckel/ACM%20Paper/acmpaper.htm)

Eben Mogleneben Moglen: A Columbia University Law Professor and pro-bono general counsel of the Free Software Foundation.  (old.law.columbia.edu)

San Jose Mercury News  (26.Dec.1999), "Microsoft Can Gain From Freeing Software"San Jose Mercury News  (26.Dec.1999) , " Microsoft Can Gain From Freeing Software": In this article (similar to Richard Stallman's article at the Free Software Foundation site), eben Moglen proposes some Linux based solutions to the Microsoft monopoly dispute.  (www.mercurycenter.com/archives/...rspective12261999.htm)

Eric Steven Raymond's Home Pageeric Steven Raymond's Home Page (www.catb.org/~esr)

The Cathedral and the BazaarThe Cathedral and the Bazaar: eric Raymond's 1997 paper (with more recent revisions). A seminal work on the idea of open source.  (www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar)

EuroLinux AllianceeuroLinux Alliance: Included in this organization's program is "Protection of Europe from a US-like patent system which would play against the development of open source software, independent software makers and independent ecommerce in Europe".  (www.eurolinux.org)

First Monday  (V4N8, 02.Aug.1999), "Anarchism Triumphant: Free Software and the Death of Copyright"First Monday  (V4N8, 02.Aug.1999) , "Anarchism Triumphant: Free Software and the Death of Copyright": A discussion of how free software "is the vital first step in the withering away of the intellectual property system".  (firstmonday.org/issues/issue4_8/moglen/index.html)

Anarchism . . . alternate sourceAnarchism . . . alternate source: An alternate source for the article on the author's website.  (old.law.columbia.edu/my_pubs/anarchism.html)

Free PatentsFree Patents: This is a European website dedicated to halting the spread of software patents. It includes a free mailing list.  (www.freepatents.org)

Patents, the free mailing list of Free Patents: This page has subscription information for the Free Patents mailing list.  (liberte.aful.org/mailman/listinfo/patents)

Free Software Business Email ListFree Software Business email List: To subscribe, just send a blank email and reply to the confirmation.  (fsb-subscribe@crynwr.com)

Free Software FoundationFree Software Foundation: Richard Stallman's organization promoting the idea of Free Software, the GNU General Public License and the copyleft concept. (www.fsf.org)

What is Free Software?What is Free Software?: Richard Stallman explains why Free Software is more like free speech than free beer.  (www.fsf.org/philosophy/free-sw.html)

What is Copyleft?What is Copyleft?: An explanation of the differences between Copyleft and public domain. Also discusses other Free Software issues.  (www.fsf.org/copyleft/copyleft.html)

Linux and the GNU ProjectLinux and the GNU Project: An explanation of how the Linux kernel works with the GNU Project to create GNU/Linux.  (www.fsf.org/gnu/linux-and-gnu.html)

The Microsoft Trial and Free SoftwareThe Microsoft Trial and Free Software: Richard Stallman's discussion of possible remedies if Microsoft loses the trial. (See also eben Moglen's similar article.)  (www.fsf.org/philosophy/microsoft-antitrust.html)

Studies Find Reward Often No MotivatorStudies Find Reward Often No Motivator: An article by Alfie Kohn in the 18.Jan.1987 issue of Boston Globe. (See also the separate Alfie Kohn website.) (www.fsf.org/philosophy/motivation.html)

gdgd: A software package that cannot support GIF because of the licensing issues.  (www.boutell.com/gd)

GIF Controversy: A Software Developer's Perspective, TheGIF Controversy: A Software Developer's Perspective, The: A lengthy paper by MCB (sorry, only have his initials) that discusses the origin of the controversy. Good information.  (cloanto.com/users/mcb/19950127giflzw.html)

Indiana University: What is LZW and what are the issues surrounding  it?Indiana University: What is LZW and what are the issues surrounding  it?  (kb.indiana.edu/data/aghf.html)

Indiana University: What is the GIF graphics file format?Indiana University: What is the GIF graphics file format? (kb.indiana.edu/data/adpn.html)

Indiana University: What is the JPEG graphics file format?Indiana University: What is the JPEG graphics file format?   (kb.indiana.edu/data/adqe.html)

Indiana University: What is the PNG graphics file format?Indiana University: What is the PNG graphics file format?   (kb.indiana.edu/data/aekl.html)

Indiana University: What is the TIFF graphics file format?Indiana University: What is the TIFF graphics file format?   (kb.indiana.edu/data/afjn.html)

Indiana University: What's the difference between GIF and JPEG image formats and why is one larger than anotherIndiana University: What's the difference between GIF and JPEG image formats and why is one larger than another (kb.indiana.edu/data/afxz.html)

John Barkaus's LZW and GIF ExplainedJohn Barkaus's LZW and GIF explained: A detailed explanation of the algorithm.  (www.danbbs.dk/~dino/whirlgif/lzw.html)

League for Programming FreedomLeague for Programming Freedom: The League for Programming Freedom is an organization that opposes software patents and user interface copyrights.  (lpf.ai.mit.edu)

Software PatentsSoftware Patents: This page on the League for Programming Freedom site offers substantial references to articles about Software Patents. It also includes some links to mirrored copies of the Internet Patent News Service (lpf.ai.mit.edu/Patents/patents.html)

Against Software PatentsAgainst Software Patents: This article (originally from 28.Feb.1991; last mod 1994) is a good summary of the LPF position.  (lpf.ai.mit.edu/Patents/against-software-patents.html)

Linux and Decentralized DevelopmentLinux and Decentralized Development: This essay by Christopher B. Browne explores the facts and merits of Linux's decentralized development model.  (www.hex.net/~cbbrowne/lsf.html)

LinuxWorld (Nov.1998), "Preparing for the Intellectual-property offensive"LinuxWorld  (Nov.1998) , "Preparing for the Intellectual-property offensive": This article by Bruce Perkins, co-founder of the Open Source Initiative examines the implications of patents on open source(www.linuxworld.com/linuxworld/lw-1998-11/lw-11-thesource.html)

MNG Home SiteMNG Home Site: MNG is the "PNG-like" image format which will support animation. (PNG does not support animation.)  (www.cdrom.com/pub/mng)

OpenPatents.orgOpenPatents.org: A site, and an associated mailing list, proposing a pooling solution to some of the problems caused by patents, and especially to the problems specifically caused by software patents.  (www.openpatents.org)

OpenPatents.org: DiscussionsOpenPatents.org: Discussions: Information on how to join the Open Patents License discussion list.  (www.openpatents.org/discussions)

Open SourceOpen Source: The Open Source home page.  (www.opensource.org)

Open Source DefinitionOpen Source Definition: Open source doesn't just mean access to the source code. This is the "official" definition.  (opensource.org/osd.html)

Pamela SamuelsonPamela Samuelson: A long-time opponent of software patents, she is professor at the University of California at Berkeley. Check the links to her papers, both in Wired and in Communications of the ACM. (www.sims.berkeley.edu/~pam)

Pamela Samuelson PapersPamela Samuelson Papers: Links to her selected papers, including Wired and Communications of the ACM. Excellent!   (www.sims.berkeley.edu/~pam/papers.html)

PNG Home SitePNG Home Site: As the site notes, PNG is "not related to Papua New Guinea, the Pawnee National Grassland, the Professional Numismatists Guild or the Pack 'N' Go format"  (www.cdrom.com/pub/png)

Schwegman, Lundberg, Woessner & Kluth, P.A.Schwegman, Lundberg, Woessner & Kluth, P.A. (www.slwk.com/SLWKWeb/Index.asp)

A Brief Overview of Patent Protection for Software (1998?)A Brief Overview of Patent Protection for Software (1998?): A paper from a law firm discussing the basic software patent issues.  (www.slwk.com/SLWKWeb/company/papers/paper1.html)

Software Patents (03.May.1995)Software Patents (03.May.1995): A paper from a law firm discussing many of the legal issues of software patents.  (www.slwk.com/SLWKWeb/company/papers/paper6.html)

Patents and the Internet: This paper from a law firm includes this quote: "Already, the Internet has afforded anyone with a few thousand dollars the ability to establish a 'Home Page'." A few thousand dollars?  (www.slwk.com/SLWKWeb/company/papers/paper7.html)

Copyright and the Internet (1997?): Law firm paper with copyright basics applied to the internet.  (www.slwk.com/SLWKWeb/company/papers/paper11.html)

ServerObjects, AspImage and GIFServerObjects, AspImage and GIF: This page on the ServerObjects site discusses their continuing problems with Unisys and the LZW patent.  (www.serverobjects.com/lzw.html)

Slashdot  (29.Aug.1999), "Unisys Enforcing GIF Patents"Slashdot  (29.Aug.1999) , "Unisys enforcing GIF Patents": This posting (and it's follow-up comments) was one of those that helped fan the fires of the most recent flurry of activity.  (slashdot.org/articles/99/08/29/0722236.shtml)

Slashdot  (31.Aug.1999), "Unisys Not Suing (Most) WebMasters for Using GIFs"Slashdot  (31.Aug.1999) , "Unisys Not Suing (Most) WebMasters for Using GIFs": A great discussion of the problem of GIF relating to tools not licensed by Unisys.  (slashdot.org/articles/99/08/31/0143246.shtml)

Software Patent InstituteSoftware Patent Institute: A nonprofit corporation formed to provide courses and prior art about software technology to help improve the patent process. Although the site still exists (a/o 29.Jan.2000) some pages (e.g., the list of courses) haven't been updated since 1997.  (www.spi.org)

The Challenge of Software Related Patents (Jun.1994) (www.spi.org/primintr.htm)

Software Patents (Aug.1994)Software Patents (Aug.1994): An early CyberLaw article on Software patents.  (www.cyberlaw.com/cylw894.html)

Software Patents Block the Path of Computing Progress (07.Sep.1992)Software Patents Block the Path of Computing Progress (07.Sep.1992): Originally published in Barron's Business Weekly.  (www.base.com/software-patents/articles/barrons.html)

TechEncyclopedia: GIFTechencyclopedia: GIF: A definition.  (www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.cgi?sstring=gif)

TechEncyclopedia: PNGTechencyclopedia: PNG: A definition.  (www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.cgi?sstring=PNG)

Things That Suck! - Unisys and the GIF/TIFF/LZW PatentsThings That Suck! - Unisys and the GIF/TIFF/LZW Patents: Todd Osborne relates his story of an attempt, a failed attempt, to license LZW from Unisys for a product.  (www.toddtown.com/family/todd/things_that_suck/unisys.html)

ThinkGeekThinkGeek: An online store offering "stuff for smart masses", it's collection includes the Linux fish car emblem, the Chimp terminal mirror, and the Alan Cox geek god (anti-patent) t-shirt.  (www.thinkgeek.com)

UnisysUnisys (www.unisys.com)

Companies Licensed Under the LZW PatentCompanies Licensed Under the LZW Patent: A not particularly helpful list. It says, in part: "Just because a company is not listed here does not mean that the company does not have a license. License terms vary from company to company, so users should contact their software provider to determine whether the software is licensed for their intended use." Huh? everyone is supposed to call Microsoft and Corel just to be sure?.  (www.unisys.com/unisys/lzw/lzw-companies.asp)

License Information on GIF and Other LZW-based TechnologiesLicense Information on GIF and Other LZW-based Technologies: General information on the Unisys licenses.  (www.unisys.com/unisys/lzw/default.asp)

Web Site LZW Licenses Available from Unisys, Clarification of 02.Sep.1999Web Site LZW Licenses Available from Unisys, Clarification of 02.Sep.1999: Unisys' "clarification". Read it yourself. See if it helps you understand. It says, in part: "users of this software are probably covered as well for this use of GIF images on their Web sites. Questions about the exact terms of the license for a particular software product should be addressed to the provider of the software." Yeah, right. You and I and everyone else calling Microsoft just to be sure.  (www.unisys.com/unisys/lzw/lzw-license.asp)

Unisys Vs. Me (and You?)Unisys Vs. Me (and You?): A story of one developer's struggle with Unisys to try to do things legally.  (smallest.hypermart.net/gif.htm)

Unisys History Newsletter: An online collection illustrating some of the history.  (www.cc.gatech.edu/services/unisys-folklore)

The Unisys LZW PatentThe Unisys LZW Patent #4558302  (www.patents.ibm.com/details?pn=US04558302__)

VBnet FAQ: GIF Licensing Issues for Microsoft Development ProductsVBnet FAQ: GIF Licensing Issues for Microsoft Development Products: Correspondence between Randy Birch and Unisys over the licensing issues of using VB to develop software that manipulates GIFs.  (www.mvps.org/vbnet/faq/unisysgif.htm)

Wired Magazine  (Jul.1994), "Patently Absurd"Wired Magazine  (Jul.1994) , "Patently Absurd": Simpson L. Garfinkel's article about the Compton's multimedia patent, the Patent and Trademark office and patent problems.  (www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.07/patents.html)

Patently AbsurdPatently Absurd: A copy of the article on the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions site.  (ifla.org/documents/infopol/copyright/gars1.htm)

Wired News  (22.Nov.1996), "Patents Fuel Silicon Valley's Underground Bazaar"Wired News  (22.Nov.1996) , "Patents Fuel Silicon Valley's Underground Bazaar": A discussion of the new role of software patents.  (www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,615,00.html)

Wired News  (21.Aug.1997), "Duke Nukem Targeted in Patent Infringement"Wired News  (21.Aug.1997) , "Duke Nukem Targeted in Patent Infringement": A charge that Duke Nukem violates a patent on the display of living performers in video games.  (www.wired.com/news/politics/0,1283,6252,00.html)

Wired News  (12.Feb.1998), "Inventor Stakes Claim to MS Fortunes"Wired News  (12.Feb.1998) , "Inventor Stakes Claim to MS Fortunes":  Claims by Martin Gardiner Reiffin against Microsoft regarding a patent for preemptive multithreading.  (www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,10251,00.html)

Wired News  (18.May.1999) , "Award from an Unlikely Source": Richard Stallman, president of the Free Software Foundation, and anti-software-patent advocate wins the Yuri Rubinsky Memorial Award and $10,000. The award is sponsored by Microsoft and Sun Microsystems, two major proponents of software patents.  (www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,19733,00.html)

Statements and Policies on Software Patents

Adobe Systems Statement On Software PatentsAdobe Systems Statement On Software Patents: Opposition to software patents in a statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_adobe)

Autodesk Statement On Software PatentsAutodesk Statement On Software Patents: Opposition to software patents in a statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_autodesk)

Borland International Statement On Software PatentsBorland International Statement On Software Patents: Opposition to software patents in a statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_borland)

IBM Statement On Software PatentsIBM Statement On Software Patents: Support for the system in a statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_ibm)

Intel Statement On Software PatentsIntel Statement On Software Patents: Support for the system in a statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_intel)

Microsoft Statement On Software PatentsMicrosoft Statement On Software Patents: Support for the system in a statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_microsoft)

Mitch Kapor's Congressional Testimony On Software PatentsMitch Kapor's Congressional Testimony On Software Patents: Opposition to software patents in congressional testimony by Mitch Kapor, founder of Lotus.  (software_patent_kapor)

Oracle Software Patent PolicyOracle Software Patent Policy: Well written. Reportedly "withdrawn", but worth reading.  (software_patent_oracle)

Silicon Graphics Statement On Software PatentsSilicon Graphics Statement On Software Patents: Support for the system in a statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_sgi)

Software Patent HearingsSoftware Patent Hearings: In January and February of 1994, the U. S. Patent Office held hearings on the use of the patent system to protect software related inventions. This is the text of the Federal Register notice.  (software_patent_hearings)

Sun Microsystems Statement On Software PatentsSun Microsystems Statement On Software Patents: Not opposition but not outright support either. Call it "concerns". A statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_sun)

Synopsys Statement On Software PatentsSynopsys Statement On Software Patents: Opposition to software patents in a statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_synopsys)

Taligent Statement On Software PatentsTaligent Statement On Software Patents: Support for the system in a statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_taligent)

Time Warner Cable Statement On Software PatentsTime Warner Cable Statement On Software Patents: Not opposition but not outright support either. Call it "concerns". A statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_timewarner)

Videodiscovery Statement On Software PatentsVideodiscovery Statement On Software Patents: expressions of the problems for a small firm. A statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_videodiscovery)

Wind River Systems Statement On Software PatentsWind River Systems Statement On Software Patents: Opposition to software patents in a statement at a Public Hearing on Use of the Patent System to Protect Software Related Inventions, Wednesday, January 26, 1994 at the San Jose Convention Center.  (software_patent_windriver)

Other Info On My Site

UCITAUCITA: Not directly related to the Burn All GIFs issue, this consumer technology issue is another important one to be aware of.  (UCITA)

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 Yes ... I want you to link to my site Please link to me
 Want to email me? I'd love to hear from you.
 I have begun tutoring in the South Houston, Texas area.

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